Die Unabhängigkeitserklärung der USA und ihre Auswirkungen auf die Menschenrechte (German Edition)
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In literature on agrarian political economy land grabs are characterized as a structured process of the global capitalist system. According to these scholars land grabbing is an expression of or reaction to the multiple crises of global capitalism: food crises, energy crises, financial crises, over- accumulation, or the general shortage of resources. The latter describes land acquisitions in the name of environment or climate protection e.
In this context the role of so-called flex crops, which can be processed for different purposes e. For this reason civil organizations and activists intentionally use a negatively connoted term.
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Likewise, scientific research on land grabbing raised concerns about fairness and inequality and focused mainly on negative social dimensions such as displacement. However, recent criticism of existing land grabbing literature articulates that the increase in land transactions 8 GRAIN Ed. In this regard, one aspect that deserves to be discussed further is the increasing importance of South-South relations in the context of the current land rush. The Land Matrix- database records information about place and land of the project, name and origin of the investors, intention of investment, negotiation status which can be: concluded, intended, failed, or no information , size intended, and size of contract.
The fact that countries of the Global South are the main target countries of current land acquisitions may not be surprising; but the new countries emerging on the investor side are remarkable. Although North-South relations are still not of negligible relevance the United States is the number one investor-country , global relations have become much more complicated. But the focus was also on other countries like India, South Korea, and the Gulf states, especially in the beginning of the land grabbing debate.
Old morals and new perspectives on contemporary investments, in: Geoforum, , no 72, pp. In the last years new companies emerged in the Global South, which have access to large-scale land areas, taking an important position in agribusiness production networks. It is noticeable that those investors from the Global South show a preference for investing in regions of geographical or cultural proximity. Meant by this is a refashioned agricultural system in which production, processing and distribution are transnationally organized according to agribusiness interests to leveraging cost advantages, raising efficiency, and taking advantage of production-based infrastructural developments.
For instance, it is reported that the original Argentinean agribusiness group El Tejar moved its headquarters to Brazil and became one of the biggest soy producers in Brazil.
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Furthermore, traditional farming structures are more and more blurred and redefined by complex land access strategies. Since the s, the Brazilian state has actively pushed the expansion of agricultural production modeled on the idea of the green revolution. The basis for the modernization of the agriculture was mainly built on three pillars: 1 implementation of subsidized credits, 2 establishment of state- owned agricultural research and consultant institutes to develop and distribute agro-technical innovations and 3 special regional programs to incorporate peripheral regions into national economic production systems.
How big, How bad? Against the Grain , Barcelona , p. The soybean production started in the s and s in the southern Brazilian states. Over the following decades the soy production gradually expanded to the Brazilian Savanna, the cerrado. Secondly, the abundant natural resources in peripheral regions should contribute to the national value added.
And thirdly, the colonization of new areas was a strategy to solve social conflicts in traditional agricultural areas in the Southern states, where population pressure and land concentration led to land conflicts.
The availability of wide land areas and low land prices attracted farmers from southern Brazilian states to the new frontier areas. The migration was facilitated by infrastructural projects with especially highways becoming the core development corridors in peripheral areas. For the expansion of soybean production, the national agricultural research institute Embrapa played an important role by developing soybean varieties which are adjusted to the soil and climate in the cerrado. At first, it was primarily small-scale farmers who settled on the new agricultural frontiers, but the soybean production characterized by high land absorption inevitably resulted in land concentration by capitalized farmers to the exclusion of small-scale farmers.
On the one side the Brazilian agribusiness model brought economic growth to peripheral rural areas, but on the other hand the social and environmental costs were high.
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Deforestation, erosion, pollution e. Just 1. Especially deregulations measures in the s facilitated foreign investment in land. The foreign land ownership rose considerably from 2. However soybean farming is integrated in highly complex agro-industrial production networks, which are mainly controlled by transnational companies.
In spite of the dominance of transnational companies big Brazilian agribusiness enterprises also emerged through the expansion of the agribusiness model. The Brazilian agribusiness enterprises are mainly engaged in soybean production networks in the form of organizing grain production. The production processes in the agribusiness considerably differs from classical farming. The new type of farmer does not necessarily live in the countryside but in regional cities from where they control the highly technical production processes.
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Although Brazil is seen as a country with still large areas of potentially available agricultural land, due to the high demand for Brazilian agricultural land and rising land costs, Brazilian companies are more frequently looking for possibilities of investments in foreign countries. Land concentration in the s in the southern Brazilian states not only resulted in migration to the new frontiers in the Brazilian Midwest but also in migration to Paraguay.
Besides Paraguay, which is still an important country for Brazilian investments, especially the eastern parts of the Santa Cruz department in Bolivia are increased target regions for Brazilian investment. But after Brazilian independence in and the abolition of slavery, Brazil lost its ties with Africa. Considerable political and economic relations existed only with South Africa and Angola.
On state visits to African countries Lula frequently repeated that Brazil has the biggest African population outside of Africa and because of that cultural proximity Brazil has a moral commitment in engagements in Africa. During the Lula-Administration Brazilian sales to African countries quintupled. Brazil also fosters large-scale farming through technical support. In that context the Brazilian national agricultural institute Embrapa plays a key role.
For a better coordination of African affairs Embrapa Africa was founded in The headquarter was strategically situated within the council for Scientific and Industrial research in Accra, where Embrapa shares a building with the Alliance for Green Revolution in Africa and the International Food Policy Research Institute. On the other hand, civil organizations in particular underline the struggles of small-scale and landless farmers as well as the negative environmental developments in the cerrado. For them the cerrado is obviously not a favorable space whose development should be replicated in Mozambique.
Because of intense resistance, the project came to a halt and the implementation of first model communities, which was planned to begin in , has not yet started. However, the project is planned for a period of 20 years, and it remains unclear how this project will develop over the next years. Especially the Mozambican government is eager to bring the project back on track. Unclear is also the role of private Brazilian companies in this project.
Although delegations of the Brazilian agribusiness have already visited the project region of ProSAVANA, there is no clear indication of participation of private Brazilian agribusiness in the project. Agribusiness enterprises in the Global South, whose business strategy is tightly linked with land access, play an important role in new international relations.
In the case of Brazil it is visible how Brazilian agribusiness companies increases their influence in neighbouring countries in South America. Unlike the situation in South America, where the role of private agribusiness is obvious, the involvement of private Brazilian agribusinesses in Africa is usually unclear. If or how these state initiatives pave the way for investments for private Brazilian agribusiness companies remains to be more carefully investigated. This is a special challenge since Brazilian companies in Africa are not usually land owners but more likely engage in some form of technical consulting The Lula administration actively pushed relations with African countries, while during the Rousseff administration Brazil took a much more pragmatic approach in relations with African countries.
How relations with African countries, after the impeachment of Rousseff, will evolve under the new presidency of Temer remains unclear. However, this is of special interest since the further development of projects such as ProSAVANA is strongly connected to the commitment of the Brazilian state. Borras, Saturnino M.
Edelmann, Marc: Messy hectares: questions about the epistemology of land grabbing data, in: The Journal of Peasant Studies, vol. Oliveira, Gustavo de L. Ouma, Stefan: From financialization to operations of capital: Historicizing and disentangling the finance-farmland-nexus, in: Geoforum, , no. Old morals and new perspectives on contemporary investments, in: Geoforum, , no. The first period of the civil war from until was characterized by significant involvements from several international actors, including South Africa, Cuba, the United States and the Soviet Union.
Especially the involvement of the two superpowers and the dominating nature of the Cold War in international politics in the second half of the 20th century, raises the question, whether the Angolan civil war was a proxy war of the Global Cold War. Particularly the involvement of South Africa casts doubt on this notion since the apartheid-regime directed vast recourses towards preventing majority-ruled countries in southern Africa from consolidating their power to protect its domestic sociopolitical system.
By analyzing the actions and motives for the involvement of the international actors and their interactions with each other, this paper aimes at finding out whether the Angolan civil war was a proxy war in the Cold War or if the conflict was driven by a different rational, i. The two superpowers misinterpreted the conflict because of their Cold War-focused conduct of international politics. Yet, due to their involvement, the Cold War became a part of the regional conflict, however, it only had a catalyzing effect on the regional conflict and was not the primary reason for the escalation of the Angolan civil war.
Contact: thomas. After waving over the country for more than years, the Portuguese colors were hauled down for the final time as Lisbon handed its largest remaining colony over to the Angolan people. A thirteen years lasting war of independence had brought an end to the last European colonial empire in Africa. The war of independence had split the newborn nation into three warring factions. Thus, when the war of independence ended, the three movements continued to fight each other — the war was gradually blending over into a civil. Majority-rule arrived in the immediate back-yard of South Africa, by then the most preponderant power in the region.
Desperately trying to preserve its racist socio-political system, Pretoria embarked on an utmost aggressive foreign and domestic policy to prevent the new majority-ruled governments from consolidating their power.